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What are the four stages of Piaget's theory?
Sensorimotor, pre operational concrete operational and formal operational
What are schemes?
Psychological structures that help organize experiences in order to make sense of them
What is adaptation?
Building schemes by directly interacting with the environment, consisting of assimilation and accomodation
What is assimilation?
Using current schemes to interpret experiences
What is accommodation?
Creating new schemes or adjusting old ones when current ones do not fit with the experiences
What do infant sure more during equilibrium?
What do infant sure more during disequilibrium
How long is the sensorimotor stage?
The first two years
How do children in the sensorimotor stage "think?
With their movements and senses not minds
What happens at the end of the sensiromotor stage?
They can organize their experience in words, gestures, or through play
What are circular reactions?
Stumbling upon a new experience caused by the baby's own motor activity -
What is the reflexive scheme's substage?
Birth to 1 months - consists of newborn reflexes
What is the primary circular reactions substage?
1 to 4 months - simple motor habits entered around the finance own body, with limited anticipation of events
What is the secondary circular reactions substage?
4 to 8 months - actions aimed at repeating interesting effects in the surrounding world - imitation of familiar behaiors
What is the coordination of secondary circular reactions substage?
8 to 12 months - intentional behaviours. Ability to find a hidden object in the first location in which it is hidden. Improve anticipation of events and can try to change events, imitation of behaviours slightly different from what infants normally do
What is the tertiary circular reactions substage?
12-18 months - exploration of the properties of objects by acting on them in novel ways, ability to search in several locations for a hidden object, imitation of novel behaviours.
What is the mental representation substage?
18 months - 2 years. Internal depictions o objects and events, invisible displacement, deferred imitation, and make-believe play
When is facial imitation present?
When can infants copy actions?
6 to 9 months
When can infants copy behaviour rationally?
14 months - they copy purposeful behaviours more than accidental behaviours
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When do infants start problem solving?
By 7-8 months, they develop intentional sequences to solve a problem. By 10-12 months, they can flexibly apply the solution for one problem to a similar problem, by a year, they mov beyond
What is a displaced reference?
When words can be used to cue images of things not currently present - around a year
What is the video deficit effect?
Poorer performance after watching a video than a live performance - potential language delay, time taken away from parent child interactions, and more sedentary behaviours. New guidelines suggest not screen time for those under 2
What is the practical application of piaget?
Adults use it to understand how to create environments that are developmentally appropriate
What are some capacities that emerge earlier than Piaget thought?
secondary circular reactions, understanding of object properties, first signs of object permanence, deferred imitation, problem solving by analogy, and displaced reference of words
What is core knowledge?
Infants are brown with core knowledge in several domains of thought - these aid in grasping new information
How many items can children hold in memory as they age?
2 at age 2, 45 t age 7 and 7 at adulthood.
What is characteristic of baby attention?
At 2-3 months, infants shift from focusing on single features to patterns and take in information more quickly. Babies have trouble disengaging from a stimulus until 4 months
What is attention like at 4-5 months?
Able to take in and differentiate between visual stimuli and control attention shiftin
What is attention like at infancy?
Attend to novel objects, learn to track moving objects, focus on complex stimuli, and increase attention span
What is attention like in Toddlers?
Reduced attention to novel objects, increase in goal directed behaviours requires sustained attention - attention increase is due to brain development, complex goals and parental guidance
What is recall?
Remembering something not present
When can infants recall information?
By middle of the first year
Why can't we remember events before age 3?
Because the hippocampus is not well developed in infancey
How might language play into infantile amnesia?
Because language, used to store and retrieve memories, has not emerged
What is categorization?
grouping similar objects and events into a single representaiton
How do babies categorize at 6 months?
Infants categorize familiar objects into many categories (food, furniture etc) and sort by age, gender, emotional expressions
How do babies categorize by 2 ?
understanding animate versus inanimate objects
How does categorization develop
Infants and toddlers become more sensitive to fine-grained perceptual features with time, and/or they undergo a fundamental shift from perceptual to conceptual basis for making categories
What does information processing reveal?
Continuity of cognition - infants think the same ways as adults but not as well, in contrast to what piaget thought
How does vgotsky think complex mental activities originate?
In social interaction
What is the zone of proximal development?
A range of tasks that the child cannot yet handle alone, but can do with the help of more skilled individuals
What is the basic view of cognitive development through information processing?
That certain skills become better developed as children represent their experiences more efficiently and meaningfully
What are the upsides and drawbacks of intelligence tests?
Most infants tests are not good predictors of later intelligence, but are useful for later screening
What is the behaviourist (skinner) theory of language?
That we learn language through operant conditioning and imitation
What is the nativity (chomsky) theory of language?
Inborn language acquisition device biologically prepares infants to learn the rules of language
What is the interactionist view of language?
That inner capacities and environment work together - social context is important
What is the drawback to the behaviourist theory of language?
Children use novel speech and imitate selectively
What is universal grammar?
The built in mechanism in the LAD
What happens when you try to teach language to non humans?
They can learn smile words and sentences, but not rule-based language
What is brook's area?
Supports grammar and language production
What is Wernicke's area for?
Plays a role in comprehending word meaning
Why do children learn second languages more easily?
Second language processing is more laterailziedin your learnings, and there is a optimum period for language development (boundaries are unclear0
What re the problems with the nativist perspective?
Grammar is different between languages, and children master grammar slowly and make mistakes often
What is the interactionist information processing perspective of general cognitive abilities?
That children apply general cognitive abilities and native abilities are built on by experience
What is the social interaction interactionist perspective on language acquisition?
That social skills and language experiences are central to language development
Wen do infants coo?
When do infants observe taking turns in conversation?
When can they babble and understand common words?
When can they establish joint attention, participate in turn taking games and use preverbal gestures?
When do infants start to talk?
What happens to language between 18 and 24 months?
Vocabulary expands to 50-200 words and words get combined
What is joint attention?
When an infant attends to the same object as the adults
What is under extension?
Applying newly learned words too narrowly - eg.g ball only to red ball infant always plays with
What is overextension?
Applying words to a wider collection of objects and events than is appropriate
What is the main difference between comprehension and production?
Comprehension only requires recognition whereas production requires recall - children that have better comprehension have better production
What sports language development in infants?
Responding to coos and babbles, establish and respond to joint attention, and play social games
What can you do to support language development in toddlers?
Play make believe together, have frequent convserations, read to toddlers often and talk about the books