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Describe the substance itself, without changing it into something different often observing how it interacts with other substances
Describe how the substance changes into new substances or how it interacts with other substances to form something new with a different set of properties
Those changes a substance undergoes without changing the chemical composition of the substance
Result in a substance reacting to form one or more different substances having different chemical and physical properties
Stored energy. Energy of an objects is moved farther above the earths surface it's potential energy increases. position or condition s. As
Energy of motion. This energy may be converted into potential energy ( raising a mass higher above the earths surface )
Law of conservation of mass
Matter is neither created nor destroyed in an ordinary chemical reaction . It is only changed in form and/ or composition. Mass of the reactants must equal mass of the products.
Law of conservation of energy
The amount of energy in the universe is constant. Energy can neither be created nor destroyed only transformed from one form to another or used to do work.
Law Ld conservation of mass and energy
The law that states that matter and energy are related to one another by the equation E=mc^2
Solutions of two or more metals that provide properties of each metal in the solution
Roman numeral group numbers
Hydrogen and the alkali metals
The alkaline earth metals
The transition metals
Atomic number elements #58-#71
Atomic number elements #90-#103
definite shape, definite volume, and particles are very compact and only vibrate in their respective potions. Melt to form liquids and sublime to form gases.
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Ordered particle arrangement
Random particle arrangement
Take the shape of their containers, zero compressibility, maintain their volume, freeze to form solids, evaporate to form gases , and their particles have more freedom of movement than those of a solid
Particles have the greatest freedom of movement and the greatest distances among neighboring particles. Take the shape of their containers can be compressed or decompressed to take the volumes of their containers as well.
Collisions of the gas particles with the walls of the container result in the force called
When gases skip the liquid phase to form a solid
Gas with particles that have been energized to the point that some of the electrons break free from but travel with their nucleus creating an iodinized state
Bose Einstein condensate
When a gas is cooled to nearly absolute zero (oK or -273.15C) and it bosons occupy a single quantum state
Form of matter which can not be broken down into any simpler substances by ordinary chemical means
Smallest indivisible particle of an element that maintains the property of that element
Atomic number (Z)
Whole number which represents the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom for a given element
Atomic mass number
Average sum of protons and neutrons in the nuclei of the isotopes for a given element having units of amu (atomic mass units)
Subatomic particle with an electric charge of +1 elementary charge
Subatomic particle found in the nuclei of atoms with no net electric charge (neutral) and a mass of slightly larger than that of a proton
True elementary particles having no known components or substructure. Each electrons carries a -1 charge and has a mass of 1/1836 that of a protons mass located within the energy shells surrounding the nucleus of an atom.
Pure substances which have their own specific chemical physical properties
Smallest individual particles of a compound
Simplest units of an ionic compound formed by the transfer of electrons through ionic bonding
Result from the physical combination of two or more pure substances
Uniform comp. / can't distinguish different parts
Nonuiform comp / can distinguish
Homogeneous mixture. Components are the solute , and solvent May be solids, liquids, or gases.
Material being dissolved
Material using the dissolving and present in the larger proportion
Compounds usually formed when a metal atoms transfers electrons to a nonmental atom results in a positively charged action and a negatively charged anion
Compounds are formed by the sharing or electrons among atoms of nonmetals
Atoms which have gained or lost electrons in a chemical change causing them
Tow net charge
Usually metal atoms that have lost electrons to have a net positive charge
Normally nonmetal atoms that have gained electrons to have a net negative charge
Atoms of the same element having different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei they will have different atomic masses normally called isotopic masses.
Compounds which are characterized by their ability to generate hydrogen ions in aqueous solutions.
Hydronium ions (H3O+)
Ion produced by acids when they donate a hydrogen ion to water
Have a ph less than 7
Have a sour taste
Turn blue litmus to red
Remain colorless in phenolphthalein
Compounds which are characterized by their ability to generate hydroxide ions in aqueous solutions
Have ph values over 7
Have bitter taste
Turn red litmus blue
Pink in phenolphthalein
Compounds composed of a positive action (from a bar) and a negative anion( from an acid). A salt can be formed by an acid base neutralization reaction
Share their electrons between one another to form a single covalent bond in the hydrogen molecule.
Specific heat capacity
Amount of heat energy required to change the temperature of one gram of a substance by one degree celcius.
Specific heat capacity for water Amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree celcius.
Total energy change of a system which is most often represented as the "q" or the heat energy transferred system
Heat is gained q and temp are positive
Heat is released q and temp are negative
Amount of substance in units of grams
Latent beats are those amounts of heat energy required to change the phase of a sample of matter at a constant temp and pressure
Latent heat of fusion
Amount of heat energy that is absorbed per gram of ice as it kels at 0 celcius without any change in temp.
Latent heat of vaporization
Amount of heat energy that is absorbed per gram of water as it changes from liquid to steam at 100 celcius without any change in temp.
Specific heat of ice
0.50 cal/g C=2.09 J/g C
Specific heat of steam
0.48 cal/g C=2.02 J/g C