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The study of how to produce computer programs that can perform intellectually demanding tasks.
The flow of information from the sensory store toward LTM.
The study of the relation between cognitive processes and brain activities.
The study of the mental operations that support people's acquisition and use of knowledge.
The interdisciplinary attempt to study cognition through such fields as psychology, philosophy, artificial intelligence, neuroscience, linguistics, and anthropology.
event-related potential (ERP)
A diagnostic technique that uses electrodes placed on the scalp to measure the duration of brain waves during mental tasks.
The part of attention in which some perceptual information is blocked (filtered) out and not recognized, while other information receives attention and is subsequently recognized.
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
A diagnostic technique that uses magnetic fields and computerized images to locate mental operations in the brain.
human information processing
The psychological approach that attempts to identify what occurs during the various stages (attention, perception, short-term memory) of processing information.
long-term memory (LTM)
Memory that has no capacity limits and lasts from minutes to an entire lifetime.
The stage of perception during which a stimulus is identified.
A temporally ordered sequence of operations for carrying out some task.
positron-emission tomography (PET)
A diagnostic technique that uses radioactive tracers to study brain activity by measuring the amount of blood flow in different parts of the brain.
The stage that follows pattern recognition and determines which information a person will try to remember.
The part of memory that holds unanalyzed sensory information for a fraction of a second, providing an opportunity for additional analysis following the physical termination of a stimulus.
short-term memory (STM)
Memory that has limited capacity and that lasts only approximately 20 to 30 seconds in the absence of attending to its content.
The approach that emphasizes the association between a stimulus and a response, without identifying the mental operations that produced the response.
The flow of information from LTM toward the sensory store.
A rule that determines how inhibitory and excitatory connections combine to determine the total activation of a concept.
auditory information store
In Sperling's model this store maintains verbal information in short-term memory through rehearsal.
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An exaggeration of distinctive features to make a pattern more distinctive.
A procedure in which observers have to specify which of two possible target patterns is present in a display.
A feature present in one pattern but absent in another, aiding one's discrimination of the two patterns.
A positive association between concepts that belong together, as when a vertical line provides support for the possibility that a letter is a K.
A theory of pattern recognition that describes patterns in terms of their parts, or features.
Different three-dimensional shapes that combine to form three dimensional patterns.
A negative association between concepts that do not belong together, as when the presence of a vertical line provides negative evidence that a letter is a C.
interactive activation model
A theory that proposes that both feature knowledge and word knowledge combine to provide information about the identity of letters in a word.
The amount of time between the end of a stimulus and the beginning of another stimulus.
neural network model
A theory in which concepts (nodes) are linked to other concepts through excitatory and inhibitory connections to approximate the behavior of neural networks in the brain.
The format for representing concepts in a semantic network.
parallel distributed processing (PDP)
When information is simultaneously collected from different sources and combined to reach a decision.
Carrying out more than one operation at a time, such as looking at an art exhibit and making conversation.
A task in which observers are cued to report only certain items in a display of items.
A measure of the frequency with which two patterns are mistakenly identified as each other.
Repeating verbal information to keep it active in short-term memory or to transfer it into long-term memory.
The attention component of Sperling's model that determines what is recognized in the visual information store.
Carrying out one operation at a time, such as pronouncing one word at a time.
A theory that specifies how the features of a pattern are joined to other features of the pattern.
A box that presents visual stimuli at a specified duration and level of illumination.
An unanalyzed pattern that is matched against alternative patterns by using the degrees of overlap as a measure of similarity.
visual information store (VIS)
A sensory store that maintains visual information for approximately one-quarter of a second.
A task that requires observers to report everything they see in a display of items
word superiority effect
The finding that accuracy in recognizing a letter is higher when the letter is in a word than when it appears alone or is in a nonword.
allocation of capacity
When a limited amount of capacity is distributed to various tasks.
A physiological state that influences the distribution of mental capacity to various tasks.
A decrease in the perceived loudness of an unattended message.
Performing mental operations that require very little mental effort.
A theory that attempts to explain how people select information when some information processing stage becomes overloaded with too much information.
A theory that proposes that we have a limited amount of mental effort to distribute across tasks, so there are limitations on the number of tasks we can perform at the same time.
Investing mental effort in one or more tasks.
The influence of the surrounding context on the recognition of patterns.
An automatic influence where people direct their attention.
The proposition that a bottleneck occurs at the pattern recognition stage and that attention determines what information reaches the pattern recognition stage.
Learning that occurs when we do not make a conscious effort to learn.
Proposal that the bottleneck occurs when information is selected for memory.
limited-capacity perceptual channel
The pattern recognition stage of Broadbent's model, which is protected by the filter (attention) from becoming overloaded with too much perceptual information.
The amount of mental capacity required to perform a task.
A conscious decision to allocate attention to certain tasks or aspects of the environment.
A theory that proposes that people's intentions and the demands of the task determine the information processing stage at which information is selected.
The selective aspects of attention - we pay attention to some aspects of our environment and ignore other aspects.
An experimental method that requires people to repeat the attended message out loud.
The finding that it takes longer to name the color of the ink a word is printed in when the word is the name of a competing color (for example, the word red printed in blue ink).
A task that typically measures how quickly people can react to a target stimulus to evaluate the capacity demands of the primary task.
The minimal amount of activation required to become consciously aware of a stimulus.
absolute judgement task
Identifying stimuli that vary along a single, sensory continuum.
A memory code based on the sound of the stimulus.
An error that sounds like the correct answer.
A component of Baddeley's working memory model that manages the use of working memory.
A cluster of items that has been stored as a unit in long-term memory.
Proposal that information is spontaneously lost over time, even when there is no interference from other material.
To create a visual or verbal code for a test item so it can be compared with the memory codes of items stored in short-term memory.
A search that continues until the test item is compared with all items in the memory set.
Proposal that forgetting occurs because other material interferes with the information in memory.
Substituting a word with similar meaning for one of the words in a sentence.
A set of items in short-term memory that can be compared against a test item to determine if the test item is stored there.
The number of correct items that people can immediately recall from a sequence of items.
An integration of memory codes such as combining visual and verbal codes.
Using different words to express the same ideas in a sentence.
Any of the basic sounds of a language that are combined to form speech.
A component of Baddeley's working memory model that maintains and manipulates acoustic information.
Forgetting that occurs because of interference from material encountered before learning.
release from proactive interference
Reducing proactive interference by having information be dissimilar from earlier material.
Forgetting that occurs because of interference from material encountered after learning.
To sequentially compare a test item with items in short-term memory to determine if there's a match.
A search that stops as soon as the test item is successfully matched to an item in the memory set.
Changing the order of words in a sentence to change the meaning of the sentence.
A memory code based on the meaning of the stimulus.
A measure of how much response time changes for each unit of change along the x-axis (memory-set size).
Silently speaking to oneself.
A component of Baddeley's working memory model that maintains and manipulates visual/spatial information.
The use of short-term memory as a temporary store for information needed to accomplish a particular task.