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Scarcity of labor in the Americas lead Spanish and Portugal colonizers to...?
Import slaves from Africa
What three things helped cause the Age of Exploration?
Technological advances making long sea voyages possible, the desire to spread Christianity to native Indian people, and Europeans demand for eastern spices
The economic system that many European countries set up to increase its gold supplies and expand its trade is known as?
What three reasons put African Americans in higher demand to be slaves in the Americas?
Immunity to European diseases, experience with farming and Indians died due to no immunity to European diseases
Which Spaniard led conquest over the Aztecs
What was a positive effect of the Columbian exchange on the European society?
The introduction of new foods led to an increase in population
What was one major reason that Portugal and Spain established water routes to Asia's spice markets?
Avoid overland routes that were controlled by Muslim traders
Who is credited with being the first circumnavigate the world?
In Latin America, the Maya and the Aztec civilizations were similar in that they?
Developed complex mathematical systems and calendar systems
Which was the first European nation to trade Africans as slaves?
What does the word encomienda describe?
Forced labor of Native Americans
The technological advances of maritime technology by the 1500s were important because?
They made it possible for Europeans to sail anywhere
What are three positive effects of the European Commercial Revolution?
New trade companies that attempted to profit from new discoveries, new employment opportunities and new goods to be purchased with increased the standard of living
The explorations of the Dutch and French, in North America, were similar because they?
Did not find a northwest passage, so they established trade with the natives
What happened as a result of Columbus and other Europeans arriving in the new world?
The native populations were enslaved, intentionally killed, or accidentally killed for European economic gain
Why do countries like Mexico and Peru have primarily Catholic populations?
A religion was spread in these areas by Spanish and missionaries and colonists
Which product of the Colombian Exchange had the most negative impact on the Americas
The spread of diseases killed millions of Natives
What did European monarchs expect to gain from exploration?
Absolute control that would ensure wealth and power for their country
Under the encomienda system brought by the Spanish, New Spain began to resemble what European economic/social system used in the Middle Ages?
The feudal system
Central and South America were not the only areas where the ecomienda system was used. What was another Spanish colonial area where this system was used?
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What modern day city now sites of on the site of the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan?
What type of farming was used by civilizations, such as the Incas, who lived in mountainous regions
Name a few facts regarding the Spanish conquests of Central and South America
Superior European weapons defeated the Nativies
What form of government was practiced in most city-sates during the renaissance period in Italy?
What factors lead to the beginning of the Renaissance in Italy?
Cites, wealth, and Roman Heritage
What were the characteristics of the Renaissance?
The development of a historical and critical view of the world, search for balance and proportion in politics, re-emphasis on the culture of antiquity
How did Italy's location help it become the birthplace of Renaissance in Italy?
It was a wealthy trade center and existed among the heritage of ancient Rome
What does Renaissance mean and how would you describe it?
Rebirth; great intellectual and artistic creativity
William Shakespeare's plays deal mostly with dramatic conflict thus examining which idea related to the Renaissance?
What factors contributed to the beginning of the Renaissance in Italian cities?
Access to important trade routes
In western Europe, the long term effects to the invention of Gutenberg's printing press was what?
Literacy rate increased
The de' Medici family brought stability to what city during the Renaissance Era?
In what way was the Renaissance movement spread most successfully from the Italian city-states into France and England?
Why was humanism seen as an intellectual threat to the church?
Maintained that the true source of authority within the church was scripture
The ability to buy a pardon forgiving all of your sins is called what?
Martin Luther posting of his ninety-five Theses in 1517 led to what?
Decline in the authority of the church
What event inspired Martin Luther to begin his protest of the Church?
Sale of indulgences
What change to the Christian Church was used to help its followers remain loyal?
Pope Leo X threatened to _______ Martin Luther if he did not recant his statements against the church.
What movement within the church was used to help its followers remain loyal?
King Henry VIII asked the pope for an _________ of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon because she had not yet given him and heir.
What is a result of Henry VIII breaking away from the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church?
His desire to control the church of England
What was an overall effect of the Protestant Reformation?
The influence of the Catholic Church declined
What type of government is ruled by religious leaders?
Who painted the Sistine Chapel?
Who painted the Last Supper?
Leonardo Da Vinci
Who painted the School of Athens?
Which organization survived the fall of the Roman Empire because it provided order and security?
The Catholic Church
What was the main cause of the development of feudalism in Europe?
Collapse of strong central government
What were the goals of the crusades?
To regain the Holy Land
The crusades have been called "history's most successful failures." Why?
Crusades did not achieve their goals but brought about desirable change in Europe
The Middle Ages in Western Europe were characterized by?
The manor system and the importance of land ownership
What did a medieval manor contain?
Lord's estate, mill, cottages, and church
How would you summarize a medieval manor?
How was the lifestyle at a medieval manor for serfs?
Harsh everyday life
Feudalism evolved in response to a need for what?
What did a knight fight for according to the code of chivalry in the 1100s?
What is the primary characteristic of a feudal society?
Exchange of land or services
In Western Europe, feudalism developed after what occurred?
Turmoil of repeated invasions from vikings
How did feudalism affect medieval society?
Provided protection and basic economic needs to people
Why didn't peasants of medieval Europe ride up and revolt against their living conditions?
Serfs accepted life, part of church teachings
The growth of towns stimulated trade because prosperous townspeople...?
Wanted products from other regions
What are some facts about medieval towns?
Provided jobs, self-sufficient, social structure more flexible
A major goal of The Church during the Crusades (1096-1291) was to?
Capture the Holy Land from Islamic rulers
The Hundred Years War helped strengthen both France and England by?
Created a sense of nationalism
What is the significance of the Magna Carta?
Limited the King's power for the first time
What did the devastation caused by the Bubonic Plague contribute to?
Disruption and collapse of medieval society
What were the disasters that occurred in Europe in the 1300s?
Plague, food shortage, war between France and England
During the 1300s, what led to the papacy (the pope) being weakened?
Existence of many popes, monasteries owning land, great schism
The objective of the Christian Reconquista in Spain was to drive out who?
What impact did the crusades have between Europe and Asia?
Increased trade between Europe and Asia
How did the Magna Carta impact the King of England?
King had to obey laws of land, limiting his power
In what ways was the Bubonic Plague spread?
Horse riding mongols, merchants, and towns being unsanitary
Who are the main philosophers of Greece?
Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle
What is the main goal of philosophy?
To seek the truth
Why didn't Ancient Greece unite under a single government?
Because of natural barriers
What natural barriers kept Ancient Greece from uniting under a single government?
mountains and water
What areas did Alexander the Great conquer?
Iran, Egypt, and Turkey
What kind of religion was practiced in Ancient Greece
What is Polytheism?
The belief in many gods
What type of government was used in Athens?
Who was the leader of the Delian League
What was Ancient Greece made up of?
Who was the Peloponnesian War fought between?
Delian League and Peloponnesian League
Who was the Persian War fought between?
Greece and Persia
What was the result of the Persian War?
The Delian League
What cultures are mixed in Hellenistic Culture?
Persian and Egyptian
When did Hellenistic culture spread?
After Rome conquered Greece
Who could participate in direct democracy
Land-owning males over 18, foreigners who gained citizenship (NO WOMEN)
Who led the Persian Army that invaded Greece?
In what type of government is the power held through the people?
What emperor moved the Roman capital to Constantinople?
What is the name of the long period of peace in Rome?
Who brought the Pax Romana?
What is the capital of Rome?
Why was the capital of Rome moved to Constantinople?
Location was economically strategic, and had connections to other countries and the Mediterranean Sea
What did the Twelve Tables state?
all free citizens have the right to the protection of the law
What occurred during Augustus Caesar's rule?
End of the Roman Republic and the beginning of the Roman Empire
Who was the absolute ruler of Rome?
Who was the Punic War fought between?
Rome and Carthage
Why did Rome fall?
internal problems, separation of western and eastern empires, and outside invasions
Where did Constantine move the capitol of Rome?
How did Rome influence western Europe?
They created a government using fair laws
When was the coliseum built
What was the colosseum used for?
What was the common problem between partisans and plebeians?
always fighting for power
What were some Roman achievements?
Latin, architecture, and law