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Johann Gottlied Fichte
German philosopher who called on all Germans "to have that organic unity in which no member regards the fate of another as the fate of a stranger."
Advocate of Nationalism
Wrote "What is Property?"
Claimed property was profit stolen from the worker, who produced the wealth
Henri de Saint-Simon
One of the most influential early socialist thinkers
The key to progress was proper social organizations that required the "parasites" (church, aristocracy, etc.) to give way once and for all, to the "doers" (leading scientists, engineers, and industrialists). The doers would carefully plan the economy, guide it forward, and improve conditions for the poor
Influential French thinker
Wanted a socialist utopia of self-sufficient communities
Early proponent of the total emancipation of women
Wanted to abolish marriage
Pope from 1846-1878
Turned against modern trends, including national unification
Follower of radical British philosopher Jeremy Bentham
Convinced that disease and death was what cause poverty
Believed that cleaning up the urban environment would prevent disease
His report became the basis of Britain's first public health law, which created a national health board and gave cities broad authority to build modern sanitary systems
Developed the germ theory of disease
Found that the growth of living organisms is a beverage could be suppressed by heating it (pasteurization)
Urban planner for Paris
Created broad tree-lined boulevards, long open vistas, monumental buildings, middle-class housing, parks, and improved sewers and aqueducts
Gregor Johann Mendel
Augustinian priest who did groundbreaking work in the field of genetics
One of the greatest and most moving romantic French painters
Depicted dramatic, colorful scenes that stirred emotions
Painted non-European places
Samuel Taylor Coleridge
Published "Lyrical Ballads" with William Wordsworth, which abandoned flowery classical conventions for the language of ordinary speech
Wrote "Madame Bovary", describes the heroine's adulterous affairs and lavish spendings as she seeks to escape a dull husband and banal existence in a small provincial village
Wrote "The Hunchback of Notre Dame"
France's greatest master of romantic poetry and prose
Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm
"Rescued" German fairy tales
Greatest of all Russian poets
Used his lyric genius to mold the modern literary language of Russia
"Christian socialist" and mayor in Vienna
Turned from German nationalism to advocate Jewish political nationalism, called Zionism, and the creation of a Jewish state
Wrote "Evolutionary Socialism"
Argued that Marx's predictions of ever-greater poverty for workers had been proven false
Great French socialist leader
Formally repudiated revisionist doctrines in order to establish a unified socialist party
Was a gradualist at heart
Pious Sudanese leader
Proclaimed himself as Mahdi (messianic redeemer of Islam) and led a revolt against foreign control of Egypt
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Revolutionized African warfare and created the largest and most powerful kingdom in southern Africa in the nineteenth century
Controlled malaria attacks
Wrote "The White Man's Burden"
Wrote on Anglo-Indian life
Created the concept of white man's burden
Wrote "Imperialism", which influenced Russian socialist leader Vladimir Lenin
Contended that the rush to acquire colonies resulted from the economic needs of unregulated capitalism
Wrote "Heart of Darkness"
Castigated (reprimanded) the "pure selfishness" of Europeans in "civilizing" Africa
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
Executed in a palace revolution
Ottoman governor in Egypt
French-trained forces occupied Syria, eventually gave it back to the Ottomans after multinational begging
Jamal al-Din al-Afghani
Teacher and writer
Preached Islamic regeneration and defense against Western Christian aggression
Sought Muslim rejuvenation and launched the Islamic reform movement
Wrote "The Liberation of Women"
Argued that superior education for European women had contributed to the Islamic world's falling far behind the West
Groups of sepoys (Indian soldiers) rose up against Great Britain in Delhi
Founded a college that offered instruction in Western languages and subjects
Founded a society to reform traditional customs, especially child marriage, the caste system, and restrictions on widows
Outlawed the teaching of Christianity
Missionaries and converts were executed during this time
While in Europe studied medicine, knew many European languages
Wrote articles for "La Solidaridad"
Became involved with Filipino revolutionaries
While in exile, founded a school and hospital
American naval officer
Sailed into Manila Bay and sank the Spanish fleet anchored there
British subjects in China became answerable only to British law, even in disputes with Chinese
Initiated the Taiping Rebellion
Studied for civil service examinations but never passed
Religious leader who claimed he was Jesus' younger brother
Commodore in US Navy
Demanded diplomatic negotiations with the emperor
Influential Japanese author
Urged Japan to pursue "[Western]civilization and enlightenment"
Advocated learning Western languages
Foreign educated radical from India
Studied law in Britain, took a job in South Africa
Started the periodical "Indian Opinion"